Gastritis is defined as the inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach. This may be caused due to various reasons and the condition has become rampant with today's stressful and modernized life.
Unfortunately, the term "gastritis" has been misused to include many different upper abdominal problems, but true gastritis refers to the stomach lining (gastric mucosa) that is inflamed. All or part of the gastric mucosa may be involved. Gastritis may be classified as acute or chronic.
- Acute gastritis maybe characterized as erosive (damaged areas where mucosal cells are disrupted or missing) and non - erosive.
- Chronic gastritis is determined by histopathology (appearance of the gastric mucosa) with symptoms lasting a long time. There is no widely accepted classification system although some have been proposed.
- Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excessive alcohol use, chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Chronic gastritis can be caused by H pylori infection (a bacteria that lives in the mucous lining of the stomach), Pernicious anaemia ( A form of anemia that occurs when the stomach lacks a naturally occurring substance needed to properly absorb and digest vitamin B12) and Infections caused by bacteria and viruses.
If gastritis is left untreated, it can lead to a severe loss of blood and may increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.
Symptoms of gastritis vary among individuals, and in many people there are no symptoms. However, the most common symptoms include:
- Nausea or recurrent upset stomach
- Abdominal bloating
- Abdominal pain
- Burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach between meals or at night
- Loss of appetite
- Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
- Black, tarry stools
Chronic gastritis if improperly treated may leads to peptic diseases and even gastric tumours. Homeopathy is strongly recommended for gastritis. It will prevent the progression of the disease and its reoccurrence by boosting the immunity of the patient. Homoeopathy provides a symptomatic healing considering the whole individual. Symptoms including in mental and physical plane is studies and a remedy is selected which suits the individual. A permanent and safer cure is provided for the patient without any side effects.
Stress incontinence is the unintentional or uncontrollable leakage of urine. Stress incontinence happens when physical movement or activity — such as coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting, vigorous — puts pressure (stress) on your bladder. Stress incontinence is not related to psychological stress.
Stress incontinence differs from urge incontinence, which is the unintentional loss of urine caused by the bladder muscle contracting, usually associated with a sense of urgency. Stress incontinence is much more common in women than men.
- The most common causes of stress incontinence among women are pregnancy and childbirth (particularly multiple vaginal deliveries.) During pregnancy and birth, the sphincter and pelvic muscles are stretched out and are weakened. Chronic urinary tract infections can be responsible. Older age and conditions in which the patient has a chronic cough can also cause stress incontinence. This condition can also be an uncomfortable and potentially embarrassing side effect of pelvic surgery.
- Among men, prostate enlargement and prostate surgery are common causes of stress incontinence.
- Other risk factors for stress incontinence include obesity, constipation, or diabetes.
If you have stress incontinence, you may experience urine leakage when you:
- Stand up
- Get out of a car
- Lift something heavy
- Have sex
You may not experience incontinence every time you do one of these things, but any pressure-increasing activity can make you more vulnerable to unintentional urine loss, particularly when your bladder is full.
Homoeopathic treatment brings back the control over urination. Through the minute doses of Homoeopathic medicines we can improve the strength of muscles and sphincters back to normal. The medicine selection is based on the physical, mental and general symptoms which are peculiar to the person rather than for the disease. Stress incontinence is no more remain as an embarrassing problem with the help of Homoeopathy.
Cystitis is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder. Most of the time, the inflammation is caused by a bacterial infection, and it's called a urinary tract infection (UTI). A bladder infection can be painful and annoying, and it can become a serious health problem if the infection spreads to your kidneys.
Cystitis affects people of both sexes and all ages. It is more common among females than males, because women have shorter urethras.
- urinary tract infection (UTI)
- taking certain drugs
- exposure to radiation
- ongoing use of a catheter
- irritating hygiene products
Women at greatest risk of UTIs include those who:
- Are sexually active.
- Use certain types of birth control.
- Are pregnant. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of a bladder infection.
- Have experienced menopause. Altered hormone levels in postmenopausal women are often associated with UTIs.
Other risk factors in both men and women include:
- Interference with the flow of urine. This can occur in conditions such as a stone in the bladder or, in men, an enlarged prostate.
- Changes in the immune system. This can happen with certain conditions, such as diabetes, HIV infection and cancer treatment. A depressed immune system increases the risk of bacterial and, in some cases, viral bladder infections.
- Prolonged use of bladder catheters.
- In men without any predisposing health issues, cystitis is rare
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
- A strong, persistent urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
- Blood in the urine (hematuria)
- Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine
- Pelvic discomfort
- A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen
- Low-grade fever
If a bladder infection spreads to your kidneys, it can become a serious health issue. In addition to the symptoms listed above, symptoms of a kidney infection include:
- back or side pain
Homeopathic remedies for CYSTITIS has a great role to play in curing the infection and also in stopping their recurrence. Moreover homeopathic medicines are very safe . They use body’s own defenses to fight the infection. Once treated with homeopathic medicines recurrence of CYSTITIS greatly reduces and eventually stops. The medicines are selected based on the constitutional level of the individual, and it gives a rapid cure for cystitis.
Nocturnal enuresis or night time urinary incontinence, commonly called bedwetting or sleep wetting. Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting): involuntary wetting during sleep without any inherent suggestion of frequency of bedwetting or pathophysiology.
Children with nocturnal enuresis may have excessive nocturnal urine production, poor sleep arousal and/or reduced bladder capacity. Children with nocturnal enuresis may also have daytime urinary urgency, frequency or incontinence of urine.
Enuresis has been classified into persistent (primary) type and regressive (secondary type).
In primary enuresis, the child has never been dry at night. Primary nocturnal enuresis. This is the recurrent involuntary passage of urine during sleep by a child aged 5 years or older, who has never achieved consistent nighttime dryness
About 75 percent belong to this category and is probably the result of inadequate or inappropriate toilet training (e.g. excessively primitive parents).
The regressive type is often precipitated by stressful environmental events, such as a move to a new home, marital conflict in parent, birth of a sibling, or death of a family member.
he most important reason for treating enuresis is to minimize the embarrassment and anxiety of the child and the frustration experienced by the parents.
Preliminary management focusing on behavioral modification and positive reinforcement is often helpful.
Management depends on understanding of possible specific causative factors and appropriate measures to tackle any “stressors’’. Often, in addition, the following general instructions are helpful:
Reward the child for dry night.
Once bed wetting occurs, older children should be asked to wash their own clothes and soiled bed sheet.
Children should not be given any fluids after dinner.
Waking the child 1 to 2 hours after sleep to void urine again may help.
Punishment and humiliation by parents or siblings should be discouraged.
Behavioural techniques may also be used.
It should be focussed on the underlying cause. Bedwetting is a treatable condition in homeopathy. Homeopathy is a very effective natural treatment for enuresis. The homeopathic remedies for bedwetting are perfectly safe. These natural homeopathic remedies do not have any side effects at all.
The definition of encopresis requires the voluntary or involuntary passage of feces into inappropriate places at least once a month for 3 consecutive months once a chronologic or developmental age of 4 yr has been reached.
Children with encopresis often present with reports of underwear soiling, and many parents initially presume that diarrhea, rather than constipation, is the cause. In retentive encopresis, associated complaints of difficulty with defecation, abdominal or rectal pain, impaired appetite with poor growth, and urinary (day and/ or night) incontinence are common. Children often have large bowel movements that obstruct the toilet.
Nephritic syndrome (or acute nephritic syndrome) is asyndrome comprising signs of nephritis, which is kidney diseaseinvolving inflammation. It often occurs in glomerulonephritis, which is characterized by a thin glomerular basement membrane and small pores in the podocytes of the glomerulus, large enough to permit proteins and red blood cells to pass into the urine (yieldingproteinuria and hematuria). By contrast, nephrotic syndrome is characterized by only proteins moving into the urine. Nephritic syndrome, like nephrotic syndrome, may involve hypoalbuminemia due to the protein albumin moving from theblood to the urine
of chronic glomerulonephritis cannot be identified.
Nephritic syndrome is caused by inflammation of glomerulus and has urine waste, furthermore the cause can be infectious, autoimmune or thrombotic. The causes can be divided between age groups as follows:
- Iga nephropathy
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- Henoch–Schönlein purpura
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms consistent with nephritic syndrome are:
- Hematuria (blood in the urine)
- Proteinuria (protein in the urine)
- Blurred vision
- Oliguria (low urine output <400 ml/day)
The classic diagnoses of nephritic syndrome is post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, which is a common complication of Streptococcus bacterial infections, typically of the skin.
Among the tests done to diagnose if an individual has nephritic syndrome are: blood electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, potassium test, protein in the urine, urinalysis and kidney biopsy.
Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to treat ulcerative colitis but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility. As far as therapeutic medication is concerned, several well-proved medicines are available for this condition, treatment that can be selected on the basis of cause, condition, sensation and modalities of the complaints.
Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine.
Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in your feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.
Nephrotic syndrome has many causes, including primary kidney diseases such as minimal-change nephropathy, focal glomerulosclerosis, and membranous nephropathy. Nephrotic syndrome can also result from systemic diseases that affect other organs in addition to the kidneys, such as diabetes, amyloidosis, and lupus erythematosus.
Nephrotic syndrome may affect adults and children of both sexes and of any race. It may occur in typical form, or in association with nephritic syndrome. The latter connotes glomerular inflammation, with hematuria and impaired kidney function.
Signs and symptoms of nephrotic syndrome include:
- Severe swelling (edema), particularly around your eyes and in your ankles and feet
- Foamy urine, which may be caused by excess protein in your urine
- Weight gain due to excess fluid retention
The prognosis may worsen because of (1) an increased incidence of renal failure and the complications secondary to nephrotic syndrome, including thrombotic episodes and infection, or (2) treatment-related conditions, such as infectious complications of immunosuppressive drug therapy.
In secondary nephrotic syndromes, morbidity and mortality are related to the primary disease process (e.g., diabetes, lupus, amyloidosis). In diabetic nephropathy, however, the magnitude of proteinuria itself relates directly to mortality.
Homeopathy has a well-defined and promising role to play in for the treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome. It can reduce the frequency of attacks, duration of each episode of Nephrotic syndrome. It can reduce the attacks of frequent colds and infections, which in turn helps a great deal towards better control.
Homeopathic treatment is very strongly suggested in various stages of Nephrotic Syndrome. Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach. This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering.
RENAL STONE ( CALCULI)
Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys, but can develop anywhere along your urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
Kidney stones are known to be one of the most painful medical conditions. The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone
- Calcium stones are the most common. They can be made of calcium oxalate (most common), phosphate, or maleate. High-oxalate foods include potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, and spinach.
- Uric Acid This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They can occur in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy. A diet rich in purines can increase urine’s acidic level. Purine is a colorless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish, and meats.
- Struvite This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections. These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction.
- Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria.
- Dehydration from low fluid intake is a major factor in stone formation.
- High dietary intake of animal protein,sodium, refined sugars, fructose and high fructose corn syrup, oxalate, grapefruit juice, and apple juice may increase the risk of kidney stone formation.
- Kidney stones can result from an underlying metabolic condition, such as distal renal tubular acidosis, Dent's disease,hyperparathyroidism,primary hyperoxaluria,or medullary sponge kidney. 3–20% of people who form kidney stones have medullary sponge kidney.
- Kidney stones are more common in people with Crohn's disease; Crohn's disease is associated with hyperoxaluria and malabsorption of magnesium.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Kidney stones are known to cause severe pain. Symptoms of kidney stones may not occur until the stone begins to move down the ureters. This severe pain is called renal colic. You may have pain on one side of your back or abdomen. In men, pain may radiate to the groin area. The pain of renal colic comes and goes, but can be intense. People with renal colic tend to be restless.
Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:
- blood in the urine (red, pink, or brown urine)
- discolored or foul-smelling urine
- frequent need to urinate
- urinating small amounts of urine
In the case of a small kidney stone, you may not have any pain or symptoms as the stone passes through your urinary tract
Homoeopathy treatment helps in relieving the agonizing pain and also help in the passage of stone . homoeopathy also has a role to play in preventing the recurrence after surgery for calculi ( chance of recurrence 70 to 80 %)
Gout is characterized by sudden, severe attacks of pain, redness and tenderness in joints, often the joint at the base of the big toe. Gout — a complex form of arthritis — can affect anyone. Men are more likely to get gout, but women become increasingly susceptible to gout after menopause. Gout is caused by too much uric acid in the blood. when uric acid levels in your blood are too high, the uric acid may form hard crystals in your joints.
Gout occurs when urate crystals accumulate in your joint, causing the inflammation and intense pain of a gout attack. Urate crystals can form when you have high levels of uric acid in your blood.
- Diet - Eating a diet that's high in meat and seafood and high in beverages sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose) promotes higher levels of uric acid, which increases your risk of gout. Alcohol consumption, especially of beer, also increases the risk of gout.
- Obesity - If you are overweight, your body produces more uric acid and your kidneys have a more difficult time eliminating uric acid, which greatly increases your risk of gout.
- Medical conditions - These include untreated high blood pressure and chronic conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart and kidney diseases.
- Certain medications - The use of thiazide diuretics — commonly used to treat hypertension — and low-dose aspirin also can increase uric acid levels. So can the use of anti-rejection drugs prescribed for people who have undergone an organ transplant.
- Family history of gout - If other members of your family have had gout, you're more likely to develop the disease.
- Age and Sex - Men also are more likely to develop gout earlier — usually between the ages of 30 and 50 — whereas women generally develop signs and symptoms after menopause.
- Recent surgery or trauma - Experiencing recent surgery or trauma has been associated with an increased risk of developing gout.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
The signs and symptoms of gout almost always occur suddenly — often at night — and without warning.
- Intense joint pain - Gout usually affects the large joint of your big toe, but it can occur in your feet, ankles, knees, hands and wrists. The pain is likely to be most severe within the first four to 12 hours after it begins.
- Lingering discomfort - After the most severe pain subsides, some joint discomfort may last from a few days to a few weeks. Later attacks are likely to last longer and affect more joints.
- Inflammation and redness - The affected joint or joints become swollen, tender, warm and red.
- Limited range of motion - Decreased joint mobility may occur as gout progresses.
Homoeopathy helps in controlling the pain during the acute attack of gout as well as helps in preventing the recurrence of such episodes . homeopathic treatment also helps in reducing stiffness and improves the mobility of the joints.
URINARY TRACT INFECTION
A urinary tract infection, or UTI, occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. The urinary tract consists of your kidneys, the tubes that go from the kidneys to your bladder, and the tube that carries urine to the outside when you urinate. Urine inside the urinary tract is normally sterile, but if any bacteria get in, it can cause an infection.
UTIs are the second most common type of infection that people get, accounting for 8.3 million doctor visits every year in the United States. When a UTI occurs more than twice in six months, it is considered to be a recurrent urinary infection. About one in five women will get a recurrent UTI, and women who have more than three UTIs are more likely to continue having them.
The causes of recurrent UTI are Diabetes, Sexual intercourse (honeymoon cystitis). Atrophic urethritis and vaginitis (postmenopausal), Incomplete bladder emptying (dysfunctional urination) and Contraception - diaphragm, spermicide-coated condoms is also a predisposing factor. The bacteria Escherichia coli almost always cause infections of the bladder, or cystitis.
- Frequent urination
- Bloody or dark urine
- A burning sensation while urinating
- Pain in your kidneys, which means in your lower back or below the ribs
- Pain in your bladder region
- Chills with high fever (over 101°f)
- Mental disorientation
- Diagnosis made by MSU culture, urine microscopy done for conformation.
Homoeopathic approach in UTI
When there is a persistent and frequent urge to urinate. Every now and then, one feels the urge to pass urine. When one goes to pass urine, the quantity of urine may be little. But after a little time, the urge occurs again. There is intense burning and cutting during urination. There may be pain after passing a few drops of urine. The burning is so intense that the urine seems to scald him. The urine may even be bloody. Urine may pass only drop by drop. There may be pain in the back also. There may be cutting pain before, during and after urination.
When there is burning at the end of urination. The urine may be scanty. Despite urine being scanty, there is frequent urge to urinate. The urine is high coloured and muddy. Another characteristic symptom pointing to this medicine is thirstlesness. The patient hardly seems to have any thirst. There may be some dropsical swellings around the eyes. The patient is worse in heat and hot weather. Cold weather and cold applications seem to relieve the patient.
When UTI occurs in newly married men or women as a result of sexual activity. It is often known as Honeymoon cystitis. There is ineffectual urge to urinate. This can be extended to women who have UTI after intercourse, even when they are not newly married. This medicine is also good for bedridden patients. There is a sensation as if a drop of urine is rolling down the urethra. This feeling is constantly present. Burning in urethra while urinating is also present. There is pressure on the bladder and it feels as if it has not been emptied. Staphysagria is also good for urinary tract infections or UTI when it occurs due to prostatic enlargements.
When there is pain in the urinary bladder region or the lower abdomen and it extends to the back. The pain is more in the right kidney region. The urine is sandy. There is sediment in the urine. At times urine may be bloody. It is also a very good medicine for UTI in infants.
When there is a very strong smell in the urine. The strong smell is as if that of from horse’s urine. It is repulsive and one cannot stand the strong smell. Another strong symptom that indicates this medicine is intense pain in urethra when not urinating. The pain occurs when the patient is not urinating but does not occur while he is passing urine.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease
High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol.
The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills
- Lack of Physical Inactivity
- A salt-rich diet associated with processed and fatty foods
- Alcohol and tobacco use.
- age - everyone is at greater risk of high blood pressure as they get older. Prevalence of hypertension is higher in people over 60 years of age
- Size - being overweight or obese is a key risk factor for hypertension
- Sex - males and females have different risk profiles. While lifetime risk is the same for everybody, men are more prone to hypertension at a younger age and women have a higher rate of hypertension at older ages
- Lifestyle - greater intake of dietary salt, excessive alcohol, low dietary potassium and physical inactivity all contribute to an increased risk of hypertension.
- Diabetes (both due to kidney problems and nerve damage)
- Kidney disease
- Pheochromocytoma (a cancer)
- Cushing syndrome (which can be caused by use of corticosteroid drugs)
- Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (disorder of the adrenal glands, which secrete the hormone cortisol)
- Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland).
- Hyperparathyroidism (which affects calcium and phosphorous levels)
- Sleep apnea.
Classification of Hypertension
Normal < 130
Stage 1 (mild)
Stage 2 (moderate)
Stage 3 (severe)
Stage 4 (very severe)
Investigations for hypertension.
Physical examination for blood pressure level, for target organ (heart, eyes, brain and kidney) involvement and for any obvious primary cause of hypertension
ECG (LVH, IHD)
X-ray chest (LVH, LVF, rib notching)
Routine urine for albuminuria, glycosuria, haematuria
Blood urea/serum creatinine, serum electrolytes (hypokalaemic alkalosis - to rule out hyperaldosteronism)
Blood sugar fasting and post lunch to rule out DM
- Stop smoking/tobacco chewing*
- Loose weight
- Limit alcohol intake (<30 ml/d of ethanol)
- Limit sodium intake (<2.3 g/d
- Maintain adequate intake of potassium, calcium and magnesium
- Reduce intake of saturated fat and cholesterol
- Exercise aerobically on a regular basis, meditation, shavasana
Homeopathic Remedies for high blood pressure can be of great help in individuals where the illness is not very old. Homeopathic remedies work perfectly well in individuals where they have not got used to conventional medicines. The biggest advantage of using homeopathic medicines in High blood pressure is that they are natural medicines and show no side effects even if they are used for a prolonged period. Having advised on diet and exercise (where appropriate) and relaxation techniques, the homeopathic prescription is best found when tailored to the individual constitutional make up of a person. Homeopathy does not work in a superficial manner. It just does not aim at alleviating the individual symptoms. On the contrary, the effort is to get the body, the various systems and the immunity back to the natural efficient self. Once that occurs, the body and its own innate defense systems are able to get everything under control. Cure high blood pressure with homeopathy – Homeopathy is one of the most popular holistic systems of medicine. The selection of remedy is based upon the theory of individualization and symptoms similarity by using holistic approach.
This is the only way through which a state of complete health can be regained by removing all the sign and symptoms from which the patient is suffering. The aim of homeopathy is not only to cure high blood pressure but to address its underlying cause and individual susceptibility